How do I calculate water velocity?

Measure out a stretch (or reach) of a stream and starting upstream, drop a plastic ball into the water. Then, using a stopwatch, time how long it takes for the ball to travel the distance you previously measured. Do this at least 3 times, then add up the times and divide them by 3 (or … Continued

What is aquifer collapse and how does it happen?

Aquifer collapse happens when the pumping rates of wells exceed the recharge rates of aquifers, causing the soil above the aquifer to become compacted, less permeable, and unable to hold water. This can result in the earth’s surface sinking and even the formation of sinkholes.

What are the anthropogenic impacts on aquifer yield?

Anthropogenic impacts on aquifer yield include changes in rates of infiltration and evapotranspiration due to human activities, such as increased pavement and soil compaction, as well as changes in vegetation. These impacts can alter the recharge rates of aquifers and affect their yield.

What is the maximum safe yield of a well?

The maximum safe yield of a well is the maximum amount of water that can be pumped from the well over a set amount of time without depleting the surrounding groundwater. It is determined by pumping the well for an extended time, while also measuring the groundwater level.

How is the maximum safe yield of a well determined?

The maximum safe yield of a well is determined by measuring the well drawdown, which is the amount of water pumped out of the well and the amount going into the well from the surrounding groundwater. If these amounts are not balanced, the well will run out of water.

What is a stage-discharge curve?

A stage-discharge curve is a graph that predicts water discharge based on water elevation or stage in a river. This curve is used to estimate water flows at hydrometric stations that only measure water elevation.